W. Craig Carter

  • POSCO Professor of Materials Science and Engineering
  • MacVicar Faculty Fellow
  • BS University of California, Berkeley, 1983
  • MS University of California, Berkeley, 1987
  • PhD University of California, Berkeley, 1989

Computational Materials Science; Energy; Energy Storage

W. Craig Carter

Research

Professor W. Craig Carter came to MIT with a research focus in the application of theoretical and computational materials science to microstructural evolution and the relations between material properties and microstructure. He places particular emphasis on the physical analysis of complex processes when possible and the development of numerical algorithms and codes when microstructural simulation is required, and in recent years he has brought his interests and skills to the science of battery materials and the electro-chemo-mechanics of phase transitions and fracture of battery electrodes. He and Professor Yet-Ming Chiang have developed a flow battery that utilizes co-suspensions of solid state electrode and electronically conductive particulates. They co-founded a company, 24M, to produce grid scale energy storage soluntions.

Professor Carter is recognized as one of DMSE's most innovative instructors. He is a MacVicar Fellow and has received the MIT School of Engineering Bose Teaching Award. His use of Mathematica in the classroom was honored with a Wolfram Innovator Award.

With Prof. Neri Oxman of the MIT Media Lab, he has collaborated on several projects that incorporate aspects of materials science, natural design, and mythology. Their work has been shown in exhibitions and added to the permanent collections of  the MoMA, the Smithsonian, and the Pompidou Center.

Recent News

Study suggests route to improving rechargeable lithium batteries

Most of today’s lithium-ion batteries, which power everything from cars to phones, use a liquid as the electrolyte between two electrodes. Using a solid electrolyte instead could offer major advantages for both safety and energy storage capacity, but attempts to do this have faced unexpected…   more

DUE Education Talk Series: W Craig Carter

On Wednesday, September 28, the DUE Education Talk Series presents Prof. W Craig Carter and Dr. Kyle Keane, who will be discussing their collaborative effort to build a…   more

New concept turns battery technology upside-down

"A new approach to the design of a liquid battery, using a passive, gravity-fed arrangement similar to an old-fashioned hourglass, could offer great advantages due to the system’s low cost and the simplicity of its design and operation, says a team of MIT researchers who have made a…   more

New development in battery manufacturing

An advanced manufacturing approach for lithium-ion batteries, developed by researchers at MIT and at a spinoff company called 24M, promises to significantly slash the cost of the most widely used type of rechargeable batteries while also improving their performance and making them easier to…   more

Fostering U.S.-Russia energy innovation

Skoltech Center for Electrochemical Energy Storage brings together researchers from MIT and two Russian institutes to develop advanced batteries and fuel cells.   more

IAP 2015 listing now available

IAP offerings are always diverse — in 2015, there will be opportunities to learn  Adventures in Scanning Electron Microscopy  ENAMELING COURSE  Engaging Our Future Scientists  Hands-on Introduction to Atomistic Simulations  How Different Software…   more

Publications

2018

G. Bucci, Talamini, B., Balakrishna, A. R., Chiang, Y. -M., and Carter, C., “Mechanical instability of electrode-electrolyte interfaces in solid-state batteries”, Physical Review Materials, vol. 2. 2018.
K. Xiang, Yang, K., Carter, C., Tang, M., and Chiang, Y. -M., “Mesoscopic Phase Transition Kinetics in Secondary Particles of Electrode-Active Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 30. pp. 4216-4225, 2018.
A. R. Balakrishna and Carter, C., “Combining phase-field crystal methods with a Cahn-Hilliard model for binary alloys”, Physical Review E, vol. 97. 2018.
T. Swamy et al., “Lithium Metal Penetration Induced by Electrodeposition through Solid Electrolytes: Example in Single-Crystal Li6 La3 ZrTaO12 Garnet”, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 165. p. A3648—A3655, 2018.

2017

L. Porz et al., “Mechanism of Lithium Metal Penetration through Inorganic Solid Electrolytes”, Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 7. p. 1701003, 2017.
G. Bucci, Swamy, T., Bishop, S. R., Sheldon, B. W., Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “The Effect of Stress on Battery-Electrode Capacity”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 164. pp. A645 - A654, 2017.
G. Bucci, Swamy, T., Chiang, Y. -M., and Carter, C., “Modeling of internal mechanical failure of all-solid-state batteries during electrochemical cycling, and implications for battery design”, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 5. pp. 19422-19430, 2017.
G. Bucci, Swamy, T., Chiang, Y. -M., and Carter, C., “Random Walk Analysis of the Effect of Mechanical Degradation on All-Solid-State Battery Power”, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 164. p. A2660—A2664, 2017.
G. Bucci, Swamy, T., Bishop, S. R., Sheldon, B. W., Chiang, Y. -M., and Carter, C., “The Effect of Stress on Battery-Electrode Capacity”, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 164. p. A645—A654, 2017.

2016

F. Matteini et al., “Impact of the Ga Droplet Wetting, Morphology, and Pinholes on the Orientation of GaAs Nanowires”, Crystal Growth & Design, vol. 16. pp. 5781-5786, 2016.
R. V. Zucker, Carter, C., and Thompson, C. V., “Power-law scaling regimes for solid-state dewetting of thin films”, Scripta Materialia, vol. 116. pp. 143-146, 2016.
R. V. Zucker, Kim, G. H., Ye, J., Carter, C., and Thompson, C. V., “The mechanism of corner instabilities in single-crystal thin films during dewetting”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 119. p. 125306, 2016.
G. Bucci, Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “Formulation of the coupled electrochemical-mechanical boundary-value problem, with applications to transport of multiple charged species”, Acta Materialia, vol. 104. pp. 33-51, 2016.
X. Chen et al., “A low-dissipation, pumpless, gravity-induced flow battery”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 9. pp. 1760-1770, 2016.
F. Y. Fan et al., “Solvent Effects on Polysulfide Redox Kinetics and Ionic Conductivity in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 163. pp. A3111 - A3116, 2016.

2015

F. Y. Fan, Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Mechanism and Kinetics of Li2S Precipitation in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries”, Advanced Materials, vol. 27. pp. 5203-5209, 2015.
F. Y. Fan, Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Mechanism and Kinetics of Li2S Precipitation in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries”, Advanced Materials, vol. 27. pp. 5203-5209, 2015.
Z. Li, Xiang, K., Xing, W., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Reversible Aluminum-Ion Intercalation in Prussian Blue Analogs and Demonstration of a High-Power Aluminum-Ion Asymmetric Capacitor”, Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 5. p. 1401410, 2015.

2014

K. C. Smith, Brunini, V. E., Dong, Y., Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks”, Electrochimica Acta, vol. 147. pp. 460-469, 2014.
W. H. Woodford, Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “Quantifying reliability statistics for electrochemical shock of brittle materials”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 70. pp. 71-83, 2014.
T. Frolov, Carter, C., and Asta, M., “Capillary Instability in Nanowire Geometries”, Nano Letters, vol. 14. pp. 3577-3581, 2014.
F. Y. Fan et al., “Polysulfide Flow Batteries Enabled by Percolating Nanoscale Conductor Networks”, Nano Letters, vol. 14. pp. 2210-2218, 2014.
J. G. Swallow et al., “Chemomechanics of ionically conductive ceramics for electrical energy conversion and storage”, Journal of Electroceramics, vol. 32. pp. 3-27, 2014.
K. C. Smith, Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “Maximizing Energetic Efficiency in Flow Batteries Utilizing Non-Newtonian Fluids”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 161. pp. A486 - A496, 2014.
W. H. Woodford, Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Strategies to Avert Electrochemical Shock and Their Demonstration in Spinels”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 161. pp. F3005 - F3009, 2014.

2013

W. D. Kaplan, Chatain, D., Wynblatt, P., and Carter, C., “A review of wetting versus adsorption, complexions, and related phenomena: the rosetta stone of wetting”, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 48. pp. 5681-5717, 2013.
M. Tang and Carter, C., “Branching Mechanisms in Surfactant Micellar Growth”, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 117. pp. 2898-2905, 2013.
Z. Li, Young, D., Xiang, K., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Towards High Power High Energy Aqueous Sodium-Ion Batteries: The NaTi2(PO4)3/Na0.44MnO2 System”, Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 3. pp. 290-294, 2013.
G. H. Kim, Zucker, R. V., Ye, J., Carter, C., and Thompson, C. V., “Quantitative analysis of anisotropic edge retraction by solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 113. 2013.
Z. Li et al., “Aqueous semi-solid flow cell: demonstration and analysis”, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 15. pp. 15833-15839, 2013.
W. H. Woodford, Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “Electrochemical Shock in Ion-Intercalation Materials with Limited Solid-Solubility”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 160. pp. A1286 - A1292, 2013.

2012

R. V. Zucker, Chatain, D., Dahmen, U., Hagege, S., and Carter, C., “New software tools for the calculation and display of isolated and attached interfacial-energy minimizing particle shapes”, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 47. pp. 8290-8302, 2012.
C. A. Ashe, Yaron, D. J., Carter, C., Chase, C., Adamson, D., and Bartolo, L., “Advancing chemistry and interdisciplinary STEM education through interactive simulations, computer-facilitated collaborative chat, and novel instructional strategies”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 244. 2012.
C. A. Ashe et al., “Web-based simulation engine for 2D interactive simulations of molecular systems”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 244. 2012.
C. A. Ashe et al., “Web-based simulation engine for 2D interactive simulations of molecular systems”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 244. 2012.
M. Qu, Woodford, W. H., Maloney, J. M., Carter, C., Chiang, Y. M., and Van Vliet, K. J., “Nanomechanical Quantification of Elastic, Plastic, and Fracture Properties of LiCoO2”, Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 2. pp. 940-944, 2012.
V. E. Brunini, Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “Modeling the hydrodynamic and electrochemical efficiency of semi-solid flow batteries”, Electrochimica Acta, vol. 69. pp. 301-307, 2012.

2011

L. Sun, Karanjgaokar, N., Sun, K., Chasiotis, I., Carter, C., and Dillon, S., “High-strength all-solid lithium ion electrodes based on Li4Ti5O12”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196. pp. 6507-6511, 2011.
M. Duduta et al., “Semi-Solid Lithium Rechargeable Flow Battery”, Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 1. pp. 511-516, 2011.
D. A. Cogswell and Carter, C., “Thermodynamic phase-field model for microstructure with multiple components and phases: The possibility of metastable phases”, Physical Review E, vol. 83. 2011.
D. J. Yaron et al., “Central Ideas of Molecular Science (CIMS): A cross-disciplinary approach”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 241. 2011.
V. E. Brunini, Schuh, C. A., and Carter, C., “Percolation of diffusionally evolved two-phase systems”, Physical Review E, vol. 83. 2011.
V. Sharma, Xia, D., Wong, C. C., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Templated self-assembly of non-close-packed colloidal crystals: Toward diamond cubic and novel heterostructures”, Journal of Materials Research, vol. 26. pp. 247-253, 2011.

2010

M. Tang, Carter, C., Belak, J. F., and Chiang, Y. M., “Modeling the competing phase transition pathways in nanoscale olivine electrodes”, Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56. pp. 969-976, 2010.
M. Drozdov, Kauffmann, Y., Carter, C., and Kaplan, W. D., “Shape-controlled nanopores in single crystals”, Nanotechnology, vol. 21. 2010.
Y. -H. Kao, Tang, M., Meethong, N., Bai, J., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Overpotential-Dependent Phase Transformation Pathways in Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Electrodes”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 22. pp. 5845-5855, 2010.
C. Carter, Baram, M., Drozdov, M., and Kaplan, W. D., “Four questions about triple lines”, Scripta Materialia, vol. 62. pp. 894-898, 2010.
C. Carter, “STRUCTURE PREDICTIONS The genetics of grain boundaries”, Nature Materials, vol. 9. pp. 383-385, 2010.
N. Meethong, Kao, Y. -H., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Comparative Study of Lithium Transport Kinetics in Olivine Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 22. pp. 1088-1097, 2010.
A. P. Tomsia and Carter, C., “The 7th International Workshop on Interfaces: New Materials via Interfacial Control”, International Journal of Materials Research, vol. 101. pp. 7-7, 2010.
W. H. Woodford, Chiang, Y. M., and Carter, C., “"Electrochemical Shock" of Intercalation Electrodes: A Fracture Mechanics Analysis”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 157. pp. A1052 - A1059, 2010.
M. Tang, Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Electrochemically Driven Phase Transitions in Insertion Electrodes or Lithium-Ion Batteries: Examples in Lithium Metal Phosphate Olivines”, in Annual Review of Materials Research, Vol 40, vol. 40, 2010, pp. 501-529.
D. Yaron et al., “Instruction Online: Core Components for Re-Use”, in Enhancing Learning with Online Resources, Social Networking, and Digital Libraries, vol. 1060, 2010, pp. 235-262.

2009

J. -F. Wan and Carter, C., “Self-ordering mechanism of nanocluster-chain on the functional vicinal surfaces”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95. 2009.
M. Tang, Huang, H. -Y., Meethong, N., Kao, Y. -H., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Model for the Particle Size, Overpotential, and Strain Dependence of Phase Transition Pathways in Storage Electrodes: Application to Nanoscale Olivines”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 21. pp. 1557-1571, 2009.
D. J. Yaron et al., “Cross-disciplinary molecular science education in introductory science courses”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 237. 2009.

2008

N. Meethong, Kao, Y. -H., Tang, M., Huang, H. -Y., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Electrochemically Induced Phase Transformation in Nanoscale Olivines Li1-xMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn)”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 20. pp. 6189-6198, 2008.
M. Tang et al., “Nanometer-scale wetting of the silicon surface by its equilibrium oxide”, Langmuir, vol. 24. pp. 1891-1896, 2008.

2007

S. J. Dillon, Tang, M., Carter, C., and Harmer, M. P., “Complexion: A new concept for kinetic engineering in materials science”, Acta Materialia, vol. 55. pp. 6208-6218, 2007.
N. Meethong, Huang, H. -Y. S., Speakman, S. A., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Strain accommodation during phase transformations in olivine-based cathodes as a materials selection criterion for high-power rechargeable batteries”, Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 17. pp. 1115-1123, 2007.
R. F. Rajter, French, R. H., Ching, W. Y., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Calculating van der Waals-London dispersion spectra and Hamaker coefficients of carbon nanotubes in water from ab initio optical properties”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 101. 2007.
N. Meethong, Huang, H. -Y. S., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Size-dependent lithium miscibility gap in nanoscale Li1-xFePO4”, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, vol. 10. pp. A134 - A138, 2007.

2006

M. Tang, Carter, C., and Cannon, R. M., “Grain boundary order-disorder transitions”, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 41. pp. 7691-7695, 2006.
K. R. Maskaly et al., “Experimental verification of the applicability of the homogenization approximation to rough one-dimensional photonic crystals using a holographically fabricated reflection grating”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 100. 2006.
G. R. Maskaly, Garcia, E., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Publisher\textquoterights Note: Ionic colloidal crystals: Ordered, multicomponent structures via controlled heterocoagulation (vol 73, art no 011402, 2006)”, Physical Review E, vol. 74. 2006.
M. Tang, Carter, C., and Cannon, R. M., “Grain boundary transitions in binary alloys”, Physical Review Letters, vol. 97. 2006.
J. Luo, Tang, M., Cannon, R. M., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Pressure-balance and diffuse-interface models for surficial amorphous films”, Materials Science and Engineering a-Structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, vol. 422. pp. 19-28, 2006.
C. M. Bishop, Tang, M., Cannon, R. M., and Carter, C., “Continuum modelling and representations of interfaces and their transitions in materials”, Materials Science and Engineering a-Structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, vol. 422. pp. 102-114, 2006.
D. Chatain, Lewis, D., Baland, J. P., and Carter, C., “Numerical analysis of the shapes and energies of droplets on micropatterned substrates”, Langmuir, vol. 22. pp. 4237-4243, 2006.
M. Upmanyu, Srolovitz, D. J., Lobkovsky, A. E., Warren, J. A., and Carter, C., “Simultaneous grain boundary migration and grain rotation”, Acta Materialia, vol. 54. pp. 1707-1719, 2006.
M. Tang, Carter, C., and Cannon, R. M., “Diffuse interface model for structural transitions of grain boundaries”, Physical Review B, vol. 73. 2006.
G. R. Maskaly, Garcia, R. E., Carter, C., and Chiang, Y. M., “Ionic colloidal crystals: Ordered, multicomponent structures via controlled heterocoagulation”, Physical Review E, vol. 73. 2006.

2005

K. R. Maskaly, Carter, C., Averitt, R. D., and Maxwell, J. L., “Application of the homogenization approximation to rough one-dimensional photonic crystals”, Optics Letters, vol. 30. pp. 2930-2932, 2005.
K. R. Maskaly, Carter, C., Averitt, R. D., and Maxwell, J. L., “The effect of interfacial roughness on the normal incidence bandgap of one-dimensional photonic crystals”, Optics Express, vol. 13. pp. 8380-8389, 2005.
C. M. Bishop, Cannon, R. M., and Carter, C., “A diffuse interface model of interfaces: Grain boundaries in silicon nitride”, Acta Materialia, vol. 53. pp. 4755-4764, 2005.
V. Cannillo and Carter, C., “A stochastic model of damage accumulation in complex microstructures”, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40. pp. 3993-4004, 2005.
E. J. Siem and Carter, C., “Orientation-dependent surface tension functions for surface energy minimizing calculations”, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40. pp. 3107-3113, 2005.
R. E. Garcia, Carter, C., and Langer, S. A., “The effect of texture and microstructure on the macroscopic properties of polycrystalline piezoelectrics: Application to barium titanate and PZN-PT”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 88. pp. 750-757, 2005.
R. E. Garcia, Langer, S. A., and Carter, C., “Finite element implementation of a thermodynamic description of piezoelectric microstructures”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 88. pp. 742-749, 2005.
C. M. Bishop, Satet, R. L., Cannon, R. M., Carter, C., and Roosen, A. R., “A simple model of fully-faceted grain growth and coarsening with non-linear growth laws”, Zeitschrift Fur Metallkunde, vol. 96. pp. 124-134, 2005.
M. F. Buchanan et al., “Using 3D animations to teach intracellular signal transduction mechanisms: Taking the arrows out of cells”, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, vol. 32. pp. 72-78, 2005.
R. W. Balluffi, Allen, S. M., and Carter, C., Kinetics of Materials. 2005.
R. E. Garcia, Chiang, Y. M., Carter, C., Limthongkul, P., and Bishop, C. M., “Microstructural modeling and design of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 152. pp. A255 - A263, 2005.

2004

K. R. Maskaly, Maskaly, G. R., Carter, C., and Maxwell, J. L., “Diminished normal reflectivity of one-dimensional photonic crystals due to dielectric interfacial roughness”, Optics Letters, vol. 29. pp. 2791-2793, 2004.
D. Chatain and Carter, C., “Wetting dynamics - Spreading of metallic drops”, Nature Materials, vol. 3. pp. 843-845, 2004.
E. J. Siem, Carter, C., and Chatain, D., “The equilibrium shape of anisotropic interfacial particles”, Philosophical Magazine, vol. 84. pp. 991-1010, 2004.
R. E. Garcia, Bishop, C. M., and Carter, C., “Thermodynamically consistent variational principles with applications to electrically and magnetically active systems”, Acta Materialia, vol. 52. pp. 11-21, 2004.

2003

M. Maldovan, Carter, C., and Thomas, E. L., “Three-dimensional dielectric network structures with large photonic band gaps”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 83. pp. 5172-5174, 2003.
J. A. Warren, Kobayashi, R., Lobovsky, A. E., and Carter, C., “Extending phase field models of solidification to polycrystalline materials”, Acta Materialia, vol. 51. pp. 6035-6058, 2003.
M. Maldovan, Ullal, C. K., Carter, C., and Thomas, E. L., “Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups”, Nature Materials, vol. 2. pp. 664-667, 2003.
M. Maldovan, Bockstaller, M. R., Thomas, E. L., and Carter, C., “Validation of the effective-medium approximation for the dielectric permittivity of oriented nanoparticle-filled materials: effective permittivity for dielectric nanoparticles in multilayer photonic composites”, Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics, vol. 76. pp. 877-884, 2003.
C. M. Bishop, Garcia, R. E., and Carter, C., “Effect of charge separation on the stability of large wavelength fluctuations during spinodal decomposition”, Acta Materialia, vol. 51. pp. 1517-1524, 2003.
M. L. Lee, Li, Y., Feng, Y. P., and Carter, C., “Frequency-dependent complex modulus at the glass transition in Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 bulk amorphous alloys”, Physical Review B, vol. 67. 2003.
M. L. Lee, Li, Y., and Carter, C., “Mechanical properties of La-based bulk amorphous alloys and composites”, in Supercooled Liquids, Glass Transition and Bulk Metallic Glasses, vol. 754, 2003, pp. 339-344.
A. R. Takahashi, Thompson, C. V., and Carter, C., “Metallic island coalescence: Molecular dynamics simulations of boundary formation and tensile strain in polycrystalline thin films”, in Multiscale Phenomena in Materials-Experiments and Modeling Related to Mechanical Behavior, vol. 779, 2003, pp. 97-102.

2002

E. J. Siem and Carter, C., “The stability of several triply periodic surfaces”, Interface Science, vol. 10. pp. 287-296, 2002.
C. M. Bishop and Carter, C., “Relating atomistic grain boundary simulation results to the phase-field model”, Computational Materials Science, vol. 25. pp. 378-386, 2002.
M. Maldovan, Urbas, A. M., Yufa, N., Carter, C., and Thomas, E. L., “Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases”, Physical Review B, vol. 65. 2002.
A. M. Urbas, Thomas, E. L., Maldovan, M., and Carter, C., “Three dimensionally periodic block copolymer photonic crystals.”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 223. pp. C109 - C109, 2002.
V. Cannillo, Manfredini, T., Corradi, A., and Carter, C., “Numerical models of the effect of heterogeneity on the behavior of graded materials”, in Euro Ceramics Vii, Pt 1-3, vol. 206-2, 2002, pp. 2163-2166.

2001

V. R. Vedula et al., “Residual-stress predictions in polycrystalline alumina”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 84. pp. 2947-2954, 2001.
D. Chatain, Wynblatt, P., Hagege, S., Siem, E. J., and Carter, C., “Wetting in multiphase systems with complex geometries”, Interface Science, vol. 9. pp. 191-197, 2001.
S. A. Langer, Fuller, E., and Carter, C., “OOF: An image-based finite-element analysis of material microstructures”, Computing in Science & Engineering, vol. 3. pp. 15-23, 2001.
A. Zimmermann, Carter, C., and Fuller, E. R., “Damage evolution during microcracking of brittle solids”, Acta Materialia, vol. 49. pp. 127-137, 2001.

2000

M. Kitayama, Narushima, T., Carter, C., Cannon, R. M., and Glaeser, A. M., “The Wulff shape of alumina: I. Modeling the kinetics of morphological evolution”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 83. pp. 2561-2571, 2000.
V. Cannillo and Carter, C., “Computation and simulation of reliability parameters and their variations in heterogeneous materials”, Acta Materialia, vol. 48. pp. 3593-3605, 2000.
R. Kobayashi, Warren, J. A., and Carter, C., “A continuum model of grain boundaries”, Physica D, vol. 140. pp. 141-150, 2000.
J. A. Warren, Kobayashi, R., and Carter, C., “Modeling grain boundaries using a phase-field technique”, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 211. pp. 18-20, 2000.
C. M. Bishop and Carter, C., “Modelling the effect of composition on the stability of equilibrium intergranular films with diffuse interfaces”, in Interfacial Engineering for Optimized Properties Ii, vol. 586, 2000, pp. 75-79.

1999

C. H. Hsueh, Fuller, E. R., Langer, S. A., and Carter, C., “Analytical and numerical analyses for two-dimensional stress transfer”, Materials Science and Engineering a-Structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, vol. 268. pp. 1-7, 1999.
J. E. Blendell, Carter, C., and Handwerker, C. A., “Faceting and wetting transitions of anisotropic interfaces and grain boundaries”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 82. pp. 1889-1900, 1999.
D. Josell, Carter, C., and Bonevich, J. E., “Stability of multilayer structures: Capillary effects”, Nanostructured Materials, vol. 12. pp. 387-390, 1999.
C. H. Hsueh et al., “Effects of interface roughness on residual stresses in thermal barrier coatings”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 82. pp. 1073-1075, 1999.

1998

J. A. Warren, Carter, C., and Kobayashi, R., “A phase field model of the impingement of solidifying particles”, Physica A, vol. 261. pp. 159-166, 1998.
A. R. Roosen and Carter, C., “Simulations of microstructural evolution: anisotropic growth and coarsening”, Physica A, vol. 261. pp. 232-247, 1998.
C. Carter, “Computing macroscopic properties from microstructures of materials.”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 216. pp. U533 - U533, 1998.
R. Kobayashi, Warren, J. A., and Carter, C., “Vector-valued phase field model for crystallization and grain boundary formation”, Physica D, vol. 119. pp. 415-423, 1998.
J. W. Bullard, Garboczi, E. J., and Carter, C., “Interplay of capillary and elastic driving forces during microstructural evolution: Applications of a digital image model”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 83. pp. 4477-4486, 1998.
A. Saigal, Fuller, E. R., Langer, S. A., Carter, C., Zimmerman, M. H., and Faber, K. T., “Effect of interface properties on microcracking of iron titanate”, Scripta Materialia, vol. 38. pp. 1449-1453, 1998.
A. R. Roosen, McCormack, R. P., and Carter, C., “Wulffman: A tool for the calculation and display of crystal shapes”, Computational Materials Science, vol. 11. pp. 16-26, 1998.
R. Kobayashi, Warren, J. A., and Carter, C., “Mathematical models for solidification and grain boundary formation”, Ach-Models in Chemistry, vol. 135. pp. 287-295, 1998.
D. Josell and Carter, C., “Interfacial free energies and the creep of multilayer thin films”, in Thin-Films - Stresses and Mechanical Properties Vii, vol. 505, 1998, pp. 157-166.

1997

C. Argento, Jagota, A., and Carter, C., “Surface formulation for molecular interactions of macroscopic bodies”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 45. pp. 1161-1183, 1997.
J. H. Choi et al., “Equilibrium shape of internal cavities in sapphire”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 80. pp. 62-68, 1997.

1996

K. W. Moon et al., “Dynamic aspects of wetting balance tests”, Journal of Electronic Packaging, vol. 118. pp. 174-183, 1996.
A. W. Searcy, Bullard, J. W., and Carter, C., “Possible explanations of transient neck formation between pairs of100 faceted particles”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 79. pp. 2443-2451, 1996.
J. W. Cahn and Carter, C., “Crystal shapes and phase equilibria: A common mathematical basis”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, vol. 27. pp. 1431-1440, 1996.
D. Josell and Carter, C., Implications and applications of zero creep experiments for the stability of multilayer structures. 1996.
J. I. D. Alexander, Delafontaine, S., Resnick, A., and Carter, C., “Stability of non-axisymmetric liquid bridges”, Microgravity Science and Technology, vol. 9. pp. 193-200, 1996.

1995

C. Carter, Roosen, A. R., Cahn, J. W., and Taylor, J. E., “Shape Evolution by Surface-Diffusion End Surface Attachment Limited Kinetics on Completely Faceted Surfaces”, Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia, vol. 43. pp. 4309-4323, 1995.
J. Xu, COX, B. N., MCGLOCKTON, M. A., and Carter, C., “A Binary Model of Textile Composites .2. the Elastic Regime”, Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia, vol. 43. pp. 3511-3524, 1995.
J. W. Bullard, Garboczi, E. J., Carter, C., and Fuller, E. R., “Numerical-Methods for Computing Interfacial Mean-Curvature”, Computational Materials Science, vol. 4. pp. 103-116, 1995.
R. M. Cannon, Saiz, E., TOMSIA, A. P., and Carter, C., “Reactive wetting taxonomy”, in Structure and Properties of Interfaces in Ceramics, vol. 357, 1995, pp. 279-292.

1994

B. N. COX, Carter, C., and FLECK, N. A., “A Binary Model of Textile Composites .1. Formulation”, Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia, vol. 42. pp. 3463-3479, 1994.
E. R. Fuller, FREIMAN, S. W., QUINN, J. B., QUINN, G. D., and Carter, C., Fracture Mechanics Approach to the Design of Glass Aircraft Windows - a Case Study, vol. 2286. 1994.

1993

C. Carter and Handwerker, C. A., “Morphology of Grain-Growth in Response to Diffusion Induced Elastic Stresses - Cubic Systems”, Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia, vol. 41. pp. 1633-1642, 1993.

1992

D. Bentz, Pimienta, P., Garboczi, E. J., and Carter, C., Cellular Automaton Simulations of Surface Mass-Transport Due to Curvature Gradients - Simulations of Sintering in 3-D, vol. 249. 1992.
B. Burton, Carter, C., and Pasturel, A., Lmto Cvm Calculations of Partial Bcc Based Phase-Relations in the System Ni-Al-Ti. 1992.

1991

C. Carter, BUTLER, E. P., and Fuller, E. R., “Micromechanical Aspects of Asperity-Controlled Friction in Fiber-Toughened Ceramic Composites”, Scripta Metallurgica Et Materialia, vol. 25. pp. 579-584, 1991.
E. R. Fuller, BUTLER, E. P., and Carter, C., Determination of Fiber-Matrix Interfacial Properties of Importance to Ceramic Composite Toughening, vol. 195. 1991.

1990

R. H. DAUSKARDT, Carter, C., VEIRS, D. K., and RITCHIE, R. O., “Transient Subcritical Crack-Growth Behavior in Transformation-Toughened Ceramics”, Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia, vol. 38. pp. 2327-2336, 1990.
G. Ceder et al., “Phase-Diagram and Low-Temperature Behavior of Oxygen Ordering in Yba2cu3oz Using Abinitio Interactions”, Physical Review B, vol. 41. pp. 8698-8701, 1990.
C. Carter and Cannon, R. M., Sintering Microstructures - Instabilities and the Interdependence of Mass-Transport Mechanisms, vol. 7. 1990.

1989

R. M. Cannon and Carter, C., “Interplay of Sintering Microstructures, Driving Forces, and Mass-Transport Mechanisms”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 72. pp. 1550-1555, 1989.

1988

C. Carter, “The Forces and Behavior of Fluids Constrained by Solids”, Acta Metallurgica, vol. 36. pp. 2283-2292, 1988.

1987

C. Carter and Glaeser, A. M., “The Effect of Finite-Amplitude Perturbations on the Stability of Continuous Phases”, Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 89. pp. L41 - L45, 1987.
C. Carter and Glaeser, A. M., “The morphological stability of continuous intergranular phases: Thermodynamic considerations”, Acta Metallurgica, vol. 35. pp. 237-245, 1987.

1985

C. Carter, “A Generalized Controller for Factory Automation”, Isa Transactions, vol. 24. pp. 43-51, 1985.

1984

J. Arlat and Carter, C., “Implementation and Evaluation of a (b,k)-Adjacent Error-Correcting Detecting Scheme for Supercomputer Systems”, Ibm Journal of Research and Development, vol. 28. pp. 159-169, 1984.
C. Carter and Glaeser, A. M., “The Morphological Stability of Continuous Intergranular Phases - Thermodynamics Considerations”, American Ceramic Society Bulletin, vol. 63. pp. 993-993, 1984.
C. Carter and Glaeser, A. M., “Dihedral Angle Effects on the Stability of Pore Channels”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 67. pp. C124 - C127, 1984.