Angela Belcher

  • James Mason Crafts Professor
  • Professor of Materials Science and Engineering
  • Professor of Bioengineering
  • BA, Creative Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1991
  • PhD, Chemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1997

Biotechnology; Energy Storage; Nanotechnology; Polymers

Angela Belcher

Research

Angela Belcher is a materials chemist with expertise in biomaterials, biomolecular materials, organic-inorganic interfaces and solid-state chemistry. Her work focuses on evolving organisms to build new materials and devices for clean energy, electronics, the environment and medicine. She received the B.S. in Creative Studies and the Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry from the University of California at Santa Barbara. Dr. Belcher was awarded the 24th annual MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, and the 2004 Four Star General Recognition Award. In 2006 she was named Scientific American’s Research Leader of the Year. Her work has been published in many prestigious scientific journals including Science and Nature, and has been reported in the popular press including FortuneForbesDiscoverThe New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal.

Recent News

Angela Belcher presenting at 17th Annual Summer Symposium

Angela Belcher is presenting on June 15, 2018 at MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, which is presenting its 17th annual Summer Symposium: Breakthrough Cancer Nanotechnologies. Nanomedicine is a converging field of study in biology and engineering where…   more

Deshpande Center and J-WAFS announce fall 2017 research grants

The MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation announced today the award of $768,000 in grants to 17 MIT research teams currently working on early-stage technologies. DMSE-related projects include: "Structured Nucleic Acid Nanoparticle Therapeutic Delivery Platform" — Mark Bathe,…   more

Converging on cancer at the nanoscale

This summer, the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT marks the first anniversary of the launch of the Marble Center for Cancer Nanomedicine. The Marble Center for Cancer Nanomedicine focuses on grand challenges in cancer detection, treatment, and monitoring that can…   more

Publications

2017

N. M. Bardhan et al., “Enhanced Cell Capture on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Nanosheets through Oxygen Clustering”, ACS Nano, vol. 11. pp. 1548-1558, 2017.
Z. Tao et al., “Early tumor detection afforded by in vivo imaging of near-infrared II fluorescence”, Biomaterials, vol. 134. pp. 202-215, 2017.
W. Wang et al., “Harnessing the hygroscopic and biofluorescent behaviors of genetically tractable microbial cells to design biohybrid wearables”, Science Advances, vol. 3. p. e1601984, 2017.
N. M. Bardhan et al., “Enhanced Cell Capture on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Nanosheets through Oxygen Clustering”, Acs Nano, vol. 11. pp. 1548-1558, 2017.
M. T. Klug et al., “Tailoring metal halide perovskites through metal substitution: influence on photovoltaic and material properties”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 10. pp. 236-246, 2017.

2016

L. Ceppi et al., “Real-time single-walled nanotube (SWNT)-based imaging system improves tumor detection and survival in ovarian cancer animal model”, Cancer Research, vol. 76. 2016.
L. Ceppi et al., “Real-time single-walled nanotube (SWNT)-based imaging system to improve tumor detection and survival in ovarian cancer preclinical model.”, Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 34. 2016.
X. Dang et al., “Layer-by-layer assembled fluorescent probes in the second near-infrared window for systemic delivery and detection of ovarian cancer”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 113. pp. 5179-5184, 2016.
P. V. Kumar, Bardhan, N. M., Chen, G. -Y., Li, Z., Belcher, A. M., and Grossman, J. C., “New insights into the thermal reduction of graphene oxide: Impact of oxygen clustering”, Carbon, vol. 100. pp. 90-98, 2016.
H. Park et al., “Enhanced energy transport in genetically engineered excitonic networks.”, Nature materials, vol. 15. pp. 211-6, 2016.
H. Park et al., “Enhanced energy transport in genetically engineered excitonic networks”, Nature Materials, vol. 15. p. 211 - +, 2016.
M. Moradi et al., “A bio-facilitated synthetic route for nano-structured complex electrode materials”, Green Chemistry, vol. 18. pp. 2619-2624, 2016.

2015

G. -Y. Chen et al., “Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Modified with Single-Domain Antibodies for Rapid and Efficient Capture of Cells”, Chemistry-a European Journal, vol. 21. pp. 17178-17183, 2015.
N. -M. D. Courchesne, Steiner, S. A., Cantu, V. J., Hammond, P. T., and Belcher, A. M., “Biotemplated Silica and Silicon Materials as Building Blocks for Micro- to Nanostructures”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27. pp. 5361-5370, 2015.
N. -M. D. Courchesne et al., “Constructing Multifunctional Virus-Templated Nanoporous Composites for Thin Film Solar Cells: Contributions of Morphology and Optics to Photocurrent Generation”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 119. pp. 13987-14000, 2015.
M. Moradi et al., “Improving the Capacity of Sodium Ion Battery Using a Virus-Templated Nanostructured Composite Cathode”, Nano Letters, vol. 15. pp. 2917-2921, 2015.
P. -Y. Chen et al., “M13 Virus-Enabled Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Tunable Mesoporous Semiconducting Networks (vol 27, pg 1531, 2015)”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27. pp. 3176-3176, 2015.
P. -Y. Chen et al., “M13 Virus-Enabled Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Tunable Mesoporous Semiconducting Networks”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27. pp. 1531-1540, 2015.
P. -Y. Chen, Courchesne, N. -M. D., Hyder, M. N., Qi, J., Belcher, A. M., and Hammond, P. T., “Carbon nanotube-polyaniline core-shell nanostructured hydrogel for electrochemical energy storage”, Rsc Advances, vol. 5. pp. 37970-37977, 2015.
P. -Y. Chen, Qi, J., Klug, M. T., Dang, X., Hammond, P. T., and Belcher, A. M., “Response to the comments on 'Environmentally responsible fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells from recycled car batteries'”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 8. pp. 1618-1625, 2015.

2014

J. P. Casey, Barbero, R. J., Heldman, N., and Belcher, A. M., “Versatile de Novo Enzyme Activity in Capsid Proteins from an Engineered M13 Bacteriophage Library”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 136. pp. 16508-16514, 2014.
P. -Y. Chen, Qi, J., Klug, M. T., Dang, X., Hammond, P. T., and Belcher, A. M., “Environmentally responsible fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells from recycled car batteries”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 7. pp. 3659-3665, 2014.
P. -Y. Chen, Qi, J., Klug, M. T., Dang, X., Hammond, P. T., and Belcher, A. M., “Environmentally responsible fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells from recycled car batteries”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 7. pp. 3659-3665, 2014.
D. Ghosh, Bagley, A. F., Na, Y. J., Birrer, M. J., Bhatia, S. N., and Belcher, A. M., “Deep, noninvasive imaging and surgical guidance of submillimeter tumors using targeted M13-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotubes”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111. pp. 13948-13953, 2014.
N. M. Bardhan, Ghosh, D., and Belcher, A. M., “Carbon nanotubes as in vivo bacterial probes”, Nature Communications, vol. 5. p. 4918, 2014.
P. -Y. Chen et al., “Assembly of Viral Hydrogels for Three-Dimensional Conducting Nanocomposites”, Advanced Materials, vol. 26. pp. 5101-5107, 2014.
D. Oh et al., “M13 Virus-Directed Synthesis of Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries”, Nano Letters, vol. 14. pp. 4837-4845, 2014.
D. Oh et al., “M13 Virus-Directed Synthesis of Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries”, Nano Letters, vol. 14. pp. 4837-4845, 2014.
P. -Y. Chen et al., “Hydrogels: assembly of viral hydrogels for three-dimensional conducting nanocomposites (adv. Mater. 30/2014).”, Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 26. pp. 5069-5069, 2014.
N. M. Bardhan, Ghosh, D., and Belcher, A. M., “M13 Virus based detection of bacterial infections in living hosts”, Journal of Biophotonics, vol. 7. pp. 617-623, 2014.
N. -M. D. Courchesne et al., “Assembly of a Bacteriophage-Based Template for the Organization of Materials into Nanoporous Networks”, Advanced Materials, vol. 26. pp. 3398-3404, 2014.
N. -M. D. Courchesne et al., “Nanoporous networks: assembly of a bacteriophage-based template for the organization of materials into nanoporous networks (adv. Mater. 21/2014).”, Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 26. pp. 3568-3568, 2014.
K. Moskvitch and Belcher, A. M., “Grow your power source”, New Scientist, vol. 221. pp. 30-31, 2014.
P. V. Kumar, Bardhan, N. M., Tongay, S., Wu, J., Belcher, A. M., and Grossman, J. C., “Scalable enhancement of graphene oxide properties by thermally driven phase transformation”, Nature Chemistry, vol. 6. pp. 151-158, 2014.
S. Olcum et al., “Weighing nanoparticles in solution at the attogram scale”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111. pp. 1310-1315, 2014.
N. Nuraje, Lei, Y., and Belcher, A. M., “Virus-templated visible spectrum active perovskite photocatalyst”, Catalysis Communications, vol. 44. pp. 68-72, 2014.
N. Nuraje, Lei, Y., and Belcher, A. M., “Virus-templated visible spectrum active perovskite photocatalyst”, Catalysis Communications, vol. 44. pp. 68-72, 2014.

2013

D. Oh, Qi, J., Lu, Y. -C., Zhang, Y., Shao-Horn, Y., and Belcher, A. M., “Biologically enhanced cathode design for improved capacity and cycle life for lithium-oxygen batteries”, Nature Communications, vol. 4. 2013.
G. T. Hess, Guimaraes, C. P., Spooner, E., Ploegh, H. L., and Belcher, A. M., “Orthogonal Labeling of M13 Minor Capsid Proteins with DNA to Self-Assemble End-to-End Multiphage Structures”, Acs Synthetic Biology, vol. 2. pp. 490-496, 2013.
P. -Y. Chen et al., “Versatile Three-Dimensional Virus-Based Template for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Improved Electron Transport and Light Harvesting”, Acs Nano, vol. 7. pp. 6563-6574, 2013.
N. Nuraje, Lei, Y., and Belcher, A. M., “Biomimetic approach for solar fuel production”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 245. 2013.
R. Barbero et al., “Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 6. pp. 660-674, 2013.
X. Dang et al., “Tunable Localized Surface Plasmon-Enabled Broadband Light-Harvesting Enhancement for High-Efficiency Panchromatic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells”, Nano Letters, vol. 13. pp. 637-642, 2013.
P. -Y. Chen et al., “Layer-by-layer assembled porous photoanodes for efficient electron collection in dye-sensitized solar cells”, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 1. pp. 2217-2224, 2013.

2012

D. Ghosh, Kohli, A. G., Moser, F., Endy, D., and Belcher, A. M., “Refactored M13 Bacteriophage as a Platform for Tumor Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery”, Acs Synthetic Biology, vol. 1. pp. 576-582, 2012.
D. Ghosh et al., “M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer”, Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 7. pp. 677-682, 2012.
N. -M. D. Courchesne, Belcher, A. M., and Hammond, P. T., “Porous layer-by-layer M13 bacteriophage film as template for inorganic nanowires”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 244. 2012.
Y. Lee, Kim, J., Yun, D. S., Nam, Y. S., Shao-Horn, Y., and Belcher, A. M., “Virus-templated Au and Au-Pt core-shell nanowires and their electrocatalytic activities for fuel cell applications”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 5. pp. 8328-8334, 2012.
G. T. Hess et al., “M13 Bacteriophage Display Framework That Allows Sortase-Mediated Modification of Surface-Accessible Phage Proteins”, Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 23. pp. 1478-1487, 2012.
N. Nuraje, Dang, X., Qi, J., Allen, M. A., Lei, Y., and Belcher, A. M., “Biotemplated Synthesis of Perovskite Nanomaterials for Solar Energy Conversion”, Advanced Materials, vol. 24. pp. 2885-2889, 2012.
D. Oh et al., “Graphene Sheets Stabilized on Genetically Engineered M13 Viral Templates as Conducting Frameworks for Hybrid Energy-Storage Materials”, Small, vol. 8. pp. 1006-1011, 2012.
H. Yi et al., “M13 Phage-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes As Nanoprobes for Second Near-Infrared Window Fluorescence Imaging of Targeted Tumors”, Nano Letters, vol. 12. pp. 1176-1183, 2012.
K. Xu et al., “Genetically Programming Interfaces between Active Materials, Conductive Pathway and Current Collector in Li Ion Batteries”, in Rechargeable Lithium and Lithium Ion Batteries, vol. 41, 2012, pp. 55-64.
Y. S. Nam, Park, H., Magyar, A. P., Yun, D. S., Pollom, T. S., and Belcher, A. M., “Virus-templated iridium oxide-gold hybrid nanowires for electrochromic application”, Nanoscale, vol. 4. pp. 3405-3409, 2012.

2011

J. Qi, Dang, X., Hammond, P. T., and Belcher, A. M., “Highly Efficient Plasmon-Enhanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells through Metal@Oxide Core-Shell Nanostructure”, Acs Nano, vol. 5. pp. 7108-7116, 2011.
R. Ladewski, Miller, R., Belcher, A. M., and Hammond, P., “Beyond conformal coating: Superdeposition and pore bridging phenomena exhibited by LbL films”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 242. 2011.
J. E. Norville, Kelly, D. F., Knight, T. F., Belcher, A. M., and Walz, T., “Fast and easy protocol for the purification of recombinant S-layer protein for synthetic biology applications”, Biotechnology Journal, vol. 6. pp. 807-811, 2011.
X. Dang et al., “Virus-templated self-assembled single-walled carbon nanotubes for highly efficient electron collection in photovoltaic devices”, Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6. pp. 377-384, 2011.
G. Falini et al., “The interstitial crystal-nucleating sheet in molluscan Haliotis rufescens shell: A bio-polymeric composite”, Journal of Structural Biology, vol. 173. pp. 128-137, 2011.
Y. J. Lee and Belcher, A. M., “Nanostructure design of amorphous FePO4 facilitated by a virus for 3 V lithium ion battery cathodes”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21. pp. 1033-1039, 2011.

2010

R. A. Miller, Ladewski, R., Liau, F., Hammond, P. T., and Belcher, A. M., “Nanostructured hybrid polymer/phage templates for the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 240. 2010.
M. A. Allen, Kolesnikov-Lindsey, R., and Belcher, A. M., “Virus templated lithium ion battery materials: New cathodes for higher energy and capacity”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 240. 2010.
Y. J. Lee, Lee, Y., Oh, D., Chen, T., Ceder, G., and Belcher, A. M., “Biologically Activated Noble Metal Alloys at the Nanoscale: For Lithium Ion Battery Anodes”, Nano Letters, vol. 10. pp. 2433-2440, 2010.
B. Neltner et al., “Production of Hydrogen Using Nanocrystalline Protein-Templated Catalysts on M13 Phage”, Acs Nano, vol. 4. pp. 3227-3235, 2010.
S. Febvay, Marini, D. M., Belcher, A. M., and Clapham, D. E., “Targeted Cytosolic Delivery of Cell-Impermeable Compounds by Nanoparticle-Mediated, Light-Triggered Endosome Disruption”, Nano Letters, vol. 10. pp. 2211-2219, 2010.
Y. S. Nam et al., “Biologically templated photocatalytic nanostructures for sustained light-driven water oxidation”, Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 5. pp. 340-344, 2010.
G. E. Fantner, Barbero, R. J., Gray, D. S., and Belcher, A. M., “Kinetics of antimicrobial peptide activity measured on individual bacterial cells using high-speed atomic force microscopy”, Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 5. pp. 280-285, 2010.
Y. S. Nam et al., “Virus-Templated Assembly of Porphyrins into Light-Harvesting Nanoantennae”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132. p. 1462 - +, 2010.
J. Y. Mao, Belcher, A. M., and Van Vliet, K. J., “Genetically Engineered Phage Fibers and Coatings for Antibacterial Applications”, Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 20. pp. 209-214, 2010.
J. C. Hsieh, Yun, D. S., Hu, E., and Belcher, A. M., “Ambient pressure, low-temperature synthesis and characterization of colloidal InN nanocrystals”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20. pp. 1435-1437, 2010.

2009

G. E. Fantner, Burns, D. J., Belcher, A. M., Rangelow, I. W., and Youcef-Toumi, K., “DMCMN: In Depth Characterization and Control of AFM Cantilevers With Integrated Sensing and Actuation”, Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control-Transactions of the Asme, vol. 131. 2009.
Y. J. Lee et al., “Fabricating Genetically Engineered High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Multiple Virus Genes”, Science, vol. 324. pp. 1051-1055, 2009.
A. M. Belcher, “From nature and back again: Giving new life to materials for energy”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 237. 2009.

2008

A. S. Khalil et al., “Kinesin\textquoterights cover-neck bundle folds forward to generate force”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105. pp. 19247-19252, 2008.
K. T. Nam et al., “Stamped microbattery electrodes based on self-assembled M13 viruses”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105. pp. 17227-17231, 2008.
A. M. Belcher, “A conversation with Prof. Angela Belcher: leader in biotemplated nanomaterials. Interview by Paul S Weiss.”, ACS nano, vol. 2. pp. 1508-13, 2008.
K. T. Nam, Lee, Y. J., Krauland, E. M., Kottmann, S. T., and Belcher, A. M., “Peptide-mediated reduction of silver ions on engineered biological scaffolds”, Acs Nano, vol. 2. pp. 1480-1486, 2008.
A. M. Belcher, “PRES 58-From Nature and back again: Giving new life to materials for energy, electronics, and the environment”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 235. 2008.
P. J. Yoo, Nam, K. T., Belcher, A. M., and Hammond, P. T., “Solvent-assisted patterning of polyelectrolyte multilayers and selective deposition of virus assemblies”, Nano Letters, vol. 8. pp. 1081-1089, 2008.
P. J. Yoo, Zacharia, N. S., Doh, J., Nam, K. T., Belcher, A. M., and Hammond, P. T., “Controlling surface mobility in interdiflusing polyelectrolyte multilayers”, Acs Nano, vol. 2. pp. 561-571, 2008.
G. E. Fantner et al., “Imaging Cellular and Viral Materials with Small Cantilevers Developed for High Speed Atomic Force Microscopy”, Nanoscale Phenomena in Functional Materials by Scanning Probe Microscopy, vol. 1025. 2008.

2007

J. E. Norville, Kelly, D. F., Knight, T. F., Belcher, A. M., and Walz, T., “7 angstrom projection map of the S-layer protein sbpA obtained with trehalose-embedded monolayer crystals”, Journal of Structural Biology, vol. 160. pp. 313-323, 2007.
S. Bhaviripudi, Qi, J., Hu, E. L., and Belcher, A. M., “Synthesis, characterization, and optical properties of ordered arrays of III-nitride nanocrystals”, Nano Letters, vol. 7. pp. 3512-3517, 2007.
A. K. Sinensky and Belcher, A. M., “Label-free and high-resolution protein/DNA nanoarray analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy”, Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2. pp. 653-659, 2007.
S. F. Filocamo, Chiang, C. -Y., Belcher, A. M., and Mello, C. M., “BIOT 395-Development of a novel method for direct nanopatterning of bacteriophage using dip-pen nanolithography”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 234. 2007.
A. M. Belcher, “Genetic control of the synthesis and assembly of materials for electronics and energy”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 234. 2007.
E. M. Krauland, Peelle, B. R., Wittrup, D., and Belcher, A. M., “Peptide tags for enhanced cellular and protein adhesion to single-crystal line sapphire”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 97. pp. 1009-1020, 2007.
A. S. Khalil et al., “Single M13 bacteriophage tethering and stretching”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104. pp. 4892-4897, 2007.
C. -Y. Chiang, Mello, C. M., Gu, J., Silva, E. C. C. M., Van Vliet, K. J., and Belcher, A. M., “Weaving genetically engineered functionality into mechanically robust virus fibers”, Advanced Materials, vol. 19. p. 826 - +, 2007.
S. Bhaviripudi et al., “CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from gold nanoparticle catalysts”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129. p. 1516 - +, 2007.
A. S. Khalil et al., “Infecting the single-molecule world: Development of a viral tool for biophysics and mechanics assays”, Biophysical Journal. p. 520A - 520A, 2007.

2006

S. Bhaviripudi, Reina, A., Qi, J., Kong, J., and Belcher, A. M., “Block-copolymer assisted synthesis of arrays of metal nanoparticles and their catalytic activities for the growth of SWNTs”, Nanotechnology, vol. 17. pp. 5080-5086, 2006.
P. J. Yoo, Nam, K. T., Belcher, A. M., and Hammond, P. T., “PMSE 193-Mechanical properties of nanocomposite latex films via istrumented identation”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 232. pp. 302-302, 2006.
K. T. Nam et al., “Virus-enabled synthesis and assembly of nanowires for lithium ion battery electrodes”, Science, vol. 312. pp. 885-888, 2006.
S. -W. Chung et al., “Directed self-assembly of virus particles at chemical templates”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 231. 2006.
K. T. Nam et al., “Virus enabled synthesis and assembly of nanowires for Lithium ion battery electrode”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 231. 2006.
S. -W. Lee, Song, J., Belcher, A. M., and Lee, S. K., “Artificial bone synthesis using genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 231. 2006.
P. J. Yoo et al., “Spontaneous assembly of viruses on multilayered polymer surfaces”, Nature Materials, vol. 5. pp. 234-240, 2006.
S. K. Lee, Yun, D. S., and Belcher, A. M., “Cobalt ion mediated self-assembly of genetically engineered bacteriophage for biomimetic Co-Pt hybrid material”, Biomacromolecules, vol. 7. pp. 14-17, 2006.

2005

M. T. Klem, Willits, D., Solis, D. J., Belcher, A. M., Young, M., and Douglas, T., “Bio-inspired synthesis of protein-encapsulated CoPt nanoparticles”, Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 15. pp. 1489-1494, 2005.
P. J. Yoo, Nam, K. T., Park, J., Belcher, A. M., and Hammond, P. T., “Two-dimensional self-assembly of engineered M13 virus on polyelectrolyte multilayer”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 230. pp. U3588 - U3588, 2005.
Y. Huang et al., “Programmable assembly of nanoarchitectures using genetically engineered viruses”, Nano Letters, vol. 5. pp. 1429-1434, 2005.
D. J. Solis, Mao, C. B., and Belcher, A. M., “Biological scaffolds for the peptide directed assembly of nanoscale materials and devices.”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 229. pp. U966 - U966, 2005.

2004

R. Y. Sweeney et al., “Bacterial biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide nanocrystals”, Chemistry & Biology, vol. 11. pp. 1553-1559, 2004.
S. Jaffar, Nam, K. T., Khademhosseini, A., Xing, J., Langer, R. S., and Belcher, A. M., “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots”, Nano Letters, vol. 4. pp. 1421-1425, 2004.
A. B. Sanghvi, Miller, K. P. H., Belcher, A. M., and Schmidt, C. E., “Fabricating novel biomimetic polymers using combinatorial peptide screening technologies.”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 227. pp. U126 - U126, 2004.
S. W. Lee and Belcher, A. M., “Virus-based fabrication of micro- and nanofibers using electrospinning”, Nano Letters, vol. 4. pp. 387-390, 2004.
J. P. Ni, Lee, S. W., White, J. M., and Belcher, A. M., “Molecular orientation of a ZnS-nanocrystal-modified M13 virus on a silicon substrate”, Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics, vol. 42. pp. 629-635, 2004.
C. B. Mao et al., “Virus-based toolkit for the directed synthesis of magnetic and semiconducting nanowires”, Science, vol. 303. pp. 213-217, 2004.
K. T. Nam, Peelle, B. R., Lee, S. W., and Belcher, A. M., “Genetically driven assembly of nanorings based on the M13 virus”, Nano Letters, vol. 4. pp. 23-27, 2004.
A. B. Sanghvi, Miller, K. P. H., Belcher, A. M., and Schmidt, C. E., “Development of a novel method for surface modification of synthetic polymer using combinatorial peptide screening technologies”, in Architecture and Application of Biomaterials and Biomolecular Materials, vol. 1, 2004, pp. 281-283.

2003

C. E. Flynn, Lee, S. W., Peelle, B. R., and Belcher, A. M., “Viruses as vehicles for growth, organization and assembly of materials”, Acta Materialia, vol. 51. pp. 5867-5880, 2003.
J. F. Qi, Mao, C. B., White, J. M., and Belcher, A. M., “Optical anisotropy in individual CdS quantum dot ensembles”, Physical Review B, vol. 68. 2003.
C. B. Mao, Qi, J. F., and Belcher, A. M., “Building quantum dots into solids with well-defined shapes”, Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 13. pp. 648-656, 2003.
C. B. Mao et al., “Viral assembly of oriented quantum dot nanowires”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100. pp. 6946-6951, 2003.
J. F. Qi, White, J. M., Belcher, A. M., and Masumoto, Y., “Optical spectroscopy of silicon nanowires”, Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 372. pp. 763-766, 2003.
S. W. Lee, Lee, S. K., and Belcher, A. M., “Virus-based alignment of inorganic, organic, and biological nanosized materials”, Advanced Materials, vol. 15. pp. 689-692, 2003.
J. F. Qi, Belcher, A. M., and White, J. M., “Spectroscopy of individual silicon nanowires”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82. pp. 2616-2618, 2003.
S. W. Lee, Wood, B. M., and Belcher, A. M., “Chiral smectic C structures of virus-based films”, Langmuir, vol. 19. pp. 1592-1598, 2003.
C. E. Flynn et al., “Synthesis and organization of nanoscale II-VI semiconductor materials using evolved peptide specificity and viral capsid assembly”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 13. pp. 2414-2421, 2003.

2002

A. M. Belcher, “Making new hybrid bid electronic and magnetic materials based on nature\textquoterights design.”, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 224. pp. U26 - U26, 2002.
X. W. Su, Belcher, A. M., Zaremba, C. M., Morse, D. E., Stucky, G. D., and Heuer, A. H., “Structural and microstructural characterization of the growth lines and prismatic microarchitecture in red abalone shell and the microstructures of abalone "flat pearls"”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 14. pp. 3106-3117, 2002.
S. W. Lee, Mao, C. B., Flynn, C. E., and Belcher, A. M., “Ordering of quantum dots using genetically engineered viruses”, Science, vol. 296. pp. 892-895, 2002.
N. C. Seeman and Belcher, A. M., “Emulating biology: Building nanostructures from the bottom up”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99. pp. 6451-6455, 2002.
A. B. Sanghvi, Miller, K. P. H., Belcher, A. M., and Schmidt, C. E., “Fabrication of novel interactive biomaterials via peptide integration for tissue engineering applications”, in Second Joint Embs-Bmes Conference 2002, Vols 1-3, Conference Proceedings: Bioengineering - Integrative Methodologies, New Technologies, 2002, pp. 1836-1837.
J. O. Winter, Flynn, C. E., Liu, T. S., Belcher, A. M., Korgel, B. A., and Schmidt, C. E., “Semiconductor-neural interfaces”, in Second Joint Embs-Bmes Conference 2002, Vols 1-3, Conference Proceedings: Bioengineering - Integrative Methodologies, New Technologies, 2002, pp. 1704-1705.

2000

S. R. Whaley, English, D. S., Hu, E. L., Barbara, P. F., and Belcher, A. M., “Selection of peptides with semiconductor binding specificity for directed nanocrystal assembly”, Nature, vol. 405. pp. 665-668, 2000.
S. R. Whaley and Belcher, A. M., “Borrowing ideas from nature: Peptide specific binding to gallium arsenide”, in Mineralization in Natural and Synthetic Biomaterials, vol. 599, 2000, pp. 189-199.

1999

B. L. Smith et al., “Molecular mechanistic origin of the toughness of natural adhesives, fibres and composites”, Nature, vol. 399. pp. 761-763, 1999.

1997

X. Y. Shen, Belcher, A. M., Hansma, P. K., Stucky, G. D., and Morse, D. E., “Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A, a matrix protein from shell and pearl nacre of Haliotis rufescens”, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272. pp. 32472-32481, 1997.
T. E. Schaffer et al., “Does abalone nacre form by heteroepitaxial nucleation or by growth through mineral bridges?”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 9. pp. 1731-1740, 1997.
D. A. Walters et al., “Modification of calcite crystal growth by abalone shell proteins: An atomic force microscope study”, Biophysical Journal, vol. 72. pp. 1425-1433, 1997.

1996

A. M. Belcher, Wu, X. H., Christensen, R. J., Hansma, P. K., Stucky, G. D., and Morse, D. E., “Control of crystal phase switching and orientation by soluble mollusc-shell proteins”, Nature, vol. 381. pp. 56-58, 1996.
C. M. Zaremba et al., “Critical transitions in the biofabrication of abalone shells and flat pearls”, Chemistry of Materials, vol. 8. pp. 679-690, 1996.