Synthesis of Lymph Node-Targeting Adjuvants

TitleSynthesis of Lymph Node-Targeting Adjuvants
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsHanson, MC, Irvine, DJ
EditorFox, CB
Book TitleVaccine Adjuvants: Methods and Protocols
Pagination145 - 152
PublisherHumana Press Inc
ISBN Number978-1-4939-6445-1 978-1-4939-6443-7
Keywordsactivation, Adjuvant carriers, agonists, Cyclic di-GMP, Cyclic dinucleotides, immunity, induction, Liposomes, Lymph node targeting, mpla, Nanoparticles, vaccine adjuvant

Molecular adjuvants based off of pattern recognition receptor agonists are capable of potently stimulating innate immunity and inducing protective immune responses to subunit antigens. One significant disadvantage to these small molecule adjuvants is their pharmacokinetic profile of entering the blood stream rather than the lymphatics after parental injection. In order to target molecular adjuvants to lymph nodes, we have developed nanoparticle carriers whose size has been optimized to avoid the blood and efficiently drain to lymph nodes (Hanson et al. Vaccine 33: 861-8,2015; Hanson et al. J Clin Invest 125: 2532-2546, 2015). This chapter describes in detail the materials and procedures necessary to synthesize liposome nanoparticle carriers of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic adjuvants, including synthesis tips, alternative equipment options, and pitfalls to avoid.