Multiple implantation and multiple annealing of phosphorus doped germanium to achieve n-type activation near the theoretical limit

TitleMultiple implantation and multiple annealing of phosphorus doped germanium to achieve n-type activation near the theoretical limit
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsKim, J, Bedell, SW, Sadana, DK
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Volume101
Issue11
Pagination112107
Date Published2012/09/10/
Abstract

Full activation of n-type dopant in germanium (Ge) reaching to its solid solubility has never been achieved by using ion implantation doping technique. This is because implantation of dopants always leaves defects such as vacancy and interstitials in the Ge crystal. While implantation-induced defects are electrically neutral for the most of semiconductor materials, they are electrically positive for Ge resulting in compensation of n-type dopants. In this Letter, we verified that 5 x 10(19) P/cm(3) is the maximum active concentration, which can be fully activated in germanium "without leaving implantation damage" per implantation/annealing cycle. The repetition of implantation and annealing of phosphorous (P) with the concentration of 5 x 10(19) cm(-3) leads to the activation of 1 x 10(20) P/cm(3) close to its solid solubility limit of 2 x 10(20) P/cm(3). (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4751845]