Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Mechanisms and Properties Governing Ion Conduction

TitleInorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Mechanisms and Properties Governing Ion Conduction
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBachman, JChristophe, Muy, S, Grimaud, A, Chang, H-H, Pour, N, Lux, SF, Paschos, O, Maglia, F, Lupart, S, Lamp, P, Giordano, L, Shao-Horn, Y
JournalChemical Reviews
Volume116
Issue1
Pagination140 - 162
Date Published2016/01/13/
Abstract

This Review is focused on ion-transport mechanisms and fundamental properties of solid-state electrolytes to be used in electrochemical energy-storage systems. Properties of the migrating species significantly affecting diffusion, including the valency and ionic radius, are discussed. The natures of the ligand and metal composing the skeleton of the host framework are analyzed and shown to have large impacts on the performance of solid-state electrolytes. A comprehensive identification of the candidate migrating species and structures is carried out. Not only the bulk properties of the conductors are explored, but the concept of tuning the conductivity through interfacial effects specifically controlling grain boundaries and strain at the interfaces is introduced. High-frequency dielectric constants and frequencies of low-energy optical phonons are shown as examples of properties that correlate with activation energy across many classes of ionic conductors. Experimental studies and theoretical results are discussed in parallel to give a pathway for further improvement of solid-state electrolytes. Through this discussion, the present Review aims to provide insight into the physical parameters affecting the diffusion process, to allow for more efficient and target-oriented research on improving solid-state ion conductors.