|Title||The impact of sodium contamination in tin sulfide thin-film solar cells|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Steinmann, V, Brandt, RE, Chakraborty, R, Jaramillo, R, Young, M, Ofori-Okai, BK, Yang, C, Polizzotti, A, Nelson, KA, Gordon, RG, Buonassisi, T|
|Keywords||cdcl2 treatment, defects, na, sns|
Through empirical observations, sodium (Na) has been identified as a benign contaminant in some thin-film solar cells. Here, we intentionally contaminate thermally evaporated tin sulfide (SnS) thin-films with sodium and measure the SnS absorber properties and solar cell characteristics. The carrier concentration increases from 2 x 1016 cm(-3) to 4.3 x 1017 cm(-3) in Na-doped SnS thin-films, when using a 13 nm NaCl seed layer, which is detrimental for SnS photovoltaic applications but could make Na-doped SnS an attractive candidate in thermoelectrics. The observed trend in carrier concentration is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations, which predict an acceptor-type Na-Sn defect with low formation energy. (C) 2016 Author(s).
|Short Title||APL Mater.|