|Title||Enhancing Adoptive Cell Therapy of Cancer through Targeted Delivery of Small-Molecule Immunomodulators to Internalizing or Noninternalizing Receptors|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Zheng, Y, Tang, L, Mabardi, L, Kumari, S, Irvine, DJ|
|Pagination||3089 - 3100|
|Keywords||Adoptive cell therapy, anticancer therapy, cancer immunotherapy, growth-factor-beta, i kinase inhibitor, immune surveillance, immunoliposomes, ly2157299 monohydrate, melanoma, metastatic melanoma, signaling pathway, targeted delivery, tgf-beta, TGF-beta receptor inhibitor, transferred t-cells, tumor microenvironment|
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has achieved striking efficacy in B-cell leukemias, but less success treating other cancers, in part due to the rapid loss of ACT T-cell effector function in vivo due to immunosuppression in solid tumors. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is an important mechanism of immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment, but systemic inhibition of TGF-beta is toxic. Here we evaluated the potential of targeting a small molecule inhibitor of TGF-beta to ACT T-cells using PEGylated immunoliposomes. Liposomes were prepared that released TGF-beta inhibitor over similar to 3 days in vitro. We compared the impact of targeting these drug-loaded vesicles to T-cells via an internalizing receptor (CD90) or noninternalizing receptor (CD45). When lymphocytes were preloaded with immunoliposomes in vitro prior to adoptive therapy, vesicles targeted to both CD45 and CD90 promoted enhanced T-cell expression of granzymes relative to free systemic drug administration, but only targeting to CD45 enhanced accumulation of granzyme-expressing T-cells in tumors, which correlated with the greatest enhancement of T-cell antitumor activity. By contrast, when administered i.v. to target T-cells in vivo, only targeting of a CD90 isoform expressed exclusively by the donor T-cells led to greater tumor regression over equivalent doses of free systemic drug. These results suggest that in vivo, targeting of receptors uniquely expressed by donor T-cells is of paramount importance for maximal efficacy. This immunoliposome strategy should be broadly applicable to target exogenous or endogenous T-cells and defines parameters to optimize delivery of supporting (or suppressive) drugs to these important immune effectors.
|Short Title||ACS Nano|