Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems

TitleEmergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSteimel, JP, Aragones, JL, Hu, H, Qureshi, N, Alexander-Katz, A
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pagination4652 - 4657
Date Published2016/04/26/
ISBN Number0027-8424
Keywordsactive matter, behavior, collective cell-migration, colloids, dynamics, elasticity, filaments, fish, flocks, fluctuations, monolayer, motion, nonequilibrium, population

Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

Short TitleProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.