|Title||Aqueous semi-solid flow cell: demonstration and analysis|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Li, Z, Smith, KC, Dong, Y, Baram, N, Fan, FY, Xie, J, Limthongkul, P, Carter, WCraig, Chiang, YM|
|Journal||Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics|
|Pagination||15833 - 15839|
An aqueous Li-ion flow cell using suspension-based flow electrodes based on the LiTi2(PO4)(3)-LiFePO4 couple is demonstrated. Unlike conventional flow batteries, the semi-solid approach utilizes fluid electrodes that are electronically conductive. A model of simultaneous advection and electrochemical transport is developed and used to separate flow-induced losses from those due to underlying side reactions. The importance of plug flow to achieving high energy efficiency in flow batteries utilizing highly non-Newtonian flow electrodes is emphasized.